Syllabus of FCPS Part 1 Dentistry

FCPS Part-1 Examination in Dentistry.


1-General Features of :-
-Blood vessels

2-General Embryology :-
-General aspects

General Features of :-
-Blood vessels
-Connective tissue
-Lymphoid tissue

4-Brain & Spinal cord
General Features of :-
-Spinal nerves
-Cranial nerves
-Vertebral column

5-Head & Neck
General Features of :-
-Major blood vessels

General Features of :-

7-Endocrine glands
-Gross structure and important relations of pituitary gland ,thyroid gland ,parathyroid gland, adrenal glands

Applied Head & Neck Anatomy


Osteology of Skull :-

Gross anatomical features of :-
-Norma Frontalis
-Norma Lateralis
-Norma Occipitalis
-Norma Verticalis
-Norma Basalis
-Cranial Fossae(Anterior + Middle + Posterior)

Applied anatomy :- Fractures (especially Lefort’s classification),Age changes,Skull deformities

2-Parotid Region :-

Gross anatomical features of :-
-Parotid gland and structures within it
-Surgical anatomical relations of parotid gland
-Innervation of parotid gland

Applied anatomy :- Facial nerve injury during surgery ,Parotiditis ,Parotid abscess ,Blockage of parotid duct

3-Temporal Region :-

-Bony boundaries and contents of temporal and infratempoal fossa
-Gross anatomical features of muscles of mastication ,innervation and blood supply
-Mandibular nerve course ,branches and areas supplied
-Maxillary artery course ,branches and areas supplied
-Gross anatomical features of TMJ with knowledge of mechanism of movements

Applied anatomy :- Mypfacial pain dysfunction syndrome ,TMJ dislocation ,Arthritis of TMJ

4-Oral Region :-

-Gross anatomical features + nerve and blood supply of the oral cavity, lips and cheeks

Applied anatomy :- Cleft lip, carcinoma of lip, cyanosis of lip, large labial frenum


Applied anatomy :- Gingivitis ,gingival recession


Applied anatomy :- Dental caries, pulpitis, abscess, extractions, periodontal disease


Applied anatomy :- Cleft palate


Applied anatomy :- Gag reflex, paralysis of genioglossus, injury to the hypoglossal nerve,sublingual absorption of drugs, lingual carcinoma, short/large lingual frenum, salivary glands

5-Submandibular Region :-

-Gross anatomical features of submandibular gland and duct
-Surgical anatomical relations of submandibular gland
-Innervation and blood supply of submandibular gland

Applied anatomy :- Excision of submandibular gland due to tumor or stone, blockage of submandibular duct

6-Orbit :-

-Contents of orbit
-Gross anatomical features of lacrimal apparatus and orbital muscles with their action ,nerve supply and blood supply

7-Nose :-

-Contents of pterygopalatine fossa
-Gross anatomical features of external nose,nasal cavity,paranasal sinuses

8-Ear :-

-Gross anatomical features of external ear ,middle ear ,inner ear


1-Osteology :-

-Gross anatomical features of cervical vertebrae + joints and hyoid bone

2-Muscles :-

-Gross anatomical features of :-

-Superfacial + Lateral (Platysma/Sternocleidomastoid/Trapezius) Muscles of neck

Applied anatomy :- Paralysis of platysma, congenital torticollis, spasmodic torticollis

3-Triangles of Neck :-

-Boundaries and contents of anterior triangle and their significance
-Boundaries and contents of posterior triangle and their significance

4-Cranial Nerves :-

Applied anatomy of V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII


General Physiology :-

1-Components of cell with their major functions, transport across the cell membrane
2-Action potential, muscle contraction
3-Classification and properties of nerve fibers
4-Receptor types and their functions
5-Somatic sensations, transmission of pain
6-Function of motor and sensory areas
7-Cerebrospinal fluid formation, functions and drainage
8-Autonomic nervous system parts and their functions
9-General properties and composition of blood including normal cell counts and functions of RBCs, WBCs and platelets
10-Mechanism of hemostatic coagulation factors and their functions
11-Blood groups
12-Conducting tissues of heart, generation and propagation of cardiac impulse
13-Cardiac cycle (pressure, volume, valvular changes)
14-Blood pressure and its regulation
15-Respiration, ventilation, transport of gases and regulation of respiration
16-Body fluids compartments and regulation of osmotic equilibrium
17-Regulation of ECF, blood volume and flow
18-Peripheral circulation
19-General functions of kidneys
20-Regulation of body temperature


1-Requisites of a balanced diet
2-General principles of electrolyte balance
3-Role and functions of endocrine hormones ,feed back mechanisms
4-Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins


-Clinical pharmacokinetics
-Adverse reactions of common drugs
-General principles of rational drug therapy
-Drug interactions :- Classification, mechanism, factors influencing the drug interactions in clinical dentistry
-Toxicity :- Dose-response relationship, acute and chronic toxicity, local and systemic toxicity

Autonomic Drugs :-

-Chemistry and mechanism of action
-Pharmacological effects
-Absorption, fate and excretion of drugs
-General therapeutic uses
-Therapeutic uses in dentistry
-Adverse effects

Analgesics, Sedatives, Hypnotics :-

-Site and mode of action
-Pharmacological effects
-Absorption, fate and excretion
-Adverse effects
-Indications and contraindications
-Therapeutic uses

Antimicrobials ( Antibacterials, Antifungal, Antiviral) :-

-Chemistry and classification
-Mechanism of action and antimicrobial spectrum
-Timing of dose + duration of therapy + routes of administration
-Mechanism of development of bacterial resistance
-Absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs
-Therapeutics + Prophylactic uses in dentistry
-Adverse effects and allergic reactions

Anaesthetics (LA & GA) :-

-Classification and mode of action
-Physical, chemical and anaesthetic properties
-Pharmacological effects
– Absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs
-General therapeutics uses
-Uses in dentistry
-Preparation and dosage + duration + routes of administration
-Adverse effects

(Oral anatomy, Oral physiology, Oral histology, Tooth morphology, Embryology)

1-General Embryology :-
-Knowledge of developmental processes involved in the formation of head and neck, including the neural folds, neural crest cell,
pharyngeal arches and pouches.
-Knowledge of developmental sequences of face, palate, tongue, skull, mandible and maxilla.

2-Tooth Development :-
-Initiation of tooth development, stages of tooth development, hard tissue formation and destruction, crown shape determination, root formation,
tooth eruption and shedding

3-Enamel :-
-Structure, formation and clinical considerations

4-Dentine-Pulp complex :-
-Structure, formation and clinical considerations

5-Periodontium :-
-Alveolar bone and fibroblasts, cementum, periodontal ligament, gingivae ….Structure, formation and clinical considerations

6-Oral Mucosa :-
-Oral epithelium, mucogingival junction, structural variations …..Definition, functions and organization

7-Salivary Glands :-
-Chemical composition, formation and functions of saliva
-Histology, functions and clinical considerations of salivary glands

8-Temporomandibular Joint :-
-Type, development, structure and functions

9-Tooth Morphology :-
-Terminology, classification and notations, timing of eruption, individual characteristics of permanent and deciduous teeth,
comparison of primary and permanent teeth, developmental characteristics and clinical considerations of occlusion

10-Age changes of dental tissues

1-Effects of injury on cell by physical, chemical and biological agents
-Chronic including granulomatous
3-Regeneration and repair
4-Metabolic response to trauma
5-Disturbance of homeostatic mechanism
-Hemorrhage and shock (mechanism & types)
-Disturbances of fluid and electrolytes
6-Thrombosis and embolism, infarction and gangrene
7-Disorders of growth (atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia)
8-Carcinogens and premalignant lesions
9-Neoplasia (types and spread of tumor)
10-General characteristics of bacteria,viruses,paracites and fungi
11-Immune system (general principles)
12-Medical genetics (basic concepts)
13-Interpretations of routine biochemical tests ,e.g liver function tests, glucose, urea, cretinine
14-Nutrition diseases, disorders due to deficiency of vitamins and minerals

1-Wound healing in oral mucosa
-Repair of enamel, dentin, pulp and periodontium
2-Disorders of development of teeth and related tissues (abnormalities in no. of teeth, disorders of eruption, defects of structure of teeth, developmental defects of oral soft tissues)
3-Dental caries (aetiology, microscopy, role of saliva, types, histopathology of enamel and dentine, root caries ,zones of caries,theories of caries)
4-Diseases of pulp and periodontal tissues (aetiology, pathology, clinical and histological features, radiological findinds, prognosis and role of dentist in prevention of diseases)
5-Major infections of mouth, jaw and perioral tissues (aetiology, pathology ,prevention)
6-Cysts of jaws (defination, classification, pathogenesis of cyst formation, clinical features, histologic features and radiological findings)
7-Pathology of odontogenic and non odontogenic tumors of jaw (aetiology, classification, clinical features, histologic features and radiological findings)
8-Pathophysiology of genetics, metabolic and non neoplastic bone diseases
9-Disorders of TMJ and periarticular tissues (classification, aetiology and pathology)
10-Neoplastic and non neoplastic diseases of salivary glands (aetiology, classification, clinical features, histologic features,special investigations)
11-Infective and non infective diseases of oral mucosa (aetiology, clinical features and pathology)
12-Tongue disorders (aetiology, clinical features, pathology, diagnosis and treatment)
13-Benign mucosal swelling and chronic mucosal white lesions (aetiology, clinical features,differential diagnosis and pathology)
14-Oral premalignancy (predisposing factors, incidence, clinical and histological features)
15-Oral screening (aetiology, clinical features, spread, screening and TNM classification)

1-Properties of materials :-
-Mechanical, Rheological, Thermal ,Chemical, Biological properties and Adhesion
2-Structure and properties of metals and alloys
3-Impression materials :-
-Classification, requirement, composition, setting reaction
-Elastic and non elastic


•General Embryology
•Introduction to Embryology
•Reproductive system
•Meiosis and Gametogenesis
•Development up to 3 weeks
•Embryonic period
•Fetal period
•Role of Genes and Teratogens in Birth defects
•Antenatal Diagnostic techniques
•General Anatomy and Histology
•Connective tissue
•Blood vessels
•Lymphoid tissue
•Skin and Fascia
•Neuro Anatomy
•Cranial Fossae
•Structure of Brain
•Meninges of Brain and Spinal cord
•Ventricular system of brain
•Autonomous nervous system
•Cranial nervous system
•Head and Neck
•Introduction of Head and Neck structures
•Anatomy of cranial vault and base of the Skull
•Temporal Fossa
•Infra-temporal Fossa
•Gross Anatomy of Nose, Para-nasal sinuses, Orbit and Ear
•Skin, Fascia and Neck muscles
•Cervical Vertebrae
•Thyroid and Para-thyroid glands
•Pharynx, Larynx and Trachea
•Triangles of Neck
•Abdomen and Thorax
•Introduction to Thoracic cavity
•Gross Anatomy and Histology of Thoracic part of Respiratory tract.
•verview of Pericardium and Heart
•General Anatomical and Histological Features of GIT

• Cell Physiology
• Components of cell with their major functions
• Transport across cell membrane

CNS Physiology
• Action potential, muscle contraction
• Classification and properties of nerve fibe
• Receptors: types and functions
• Somatic sensations, transmission of pain
• Function of motor and sensory areas
• Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) – formation, functions, drainag
• Autonomic nervous system: parts and their functions

Blood Physiology
• General properties and composition of blood including normal cell counts and functions of RBCs, WBCs and
• Mechanism of homeostatic coagulation factor and their actions
• Blood groups

CVS Physiology
• Conducting tissues of heart: generation and propagation
of cardiac impulse
• Cardiac cycle (pressure, volumes, valvular changes)
• Blood pressure and its regulations

Respiration Physiology
• Ventilation, transport of gases and regulation of respiration

Body Fluids and Renal Physiology
• Compartments and regulation of osmotic equilibrium
• Regulation of E.C.F, blood volume and flo
• Peripheral circulation
• General functions of kidney
• Regulation of body temperature

Endocrine Physiology
• Overview of hormones
• Pituitary glands
• Thyroid gland
• Adrenal gland
• Endocrine pancreas- Glucagon and Insulin
• Calcium metabolism ( Parathyroid hormone, Vitamin D,


Cellular Biochemistry
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
• General principles of electrolytes balance Nutrition

Metabolism of:
• Carbohydrates
• Proteins
• Fats
• Vitamins


General Pathology
• Effects of injury on cel
• Inflammatio
• Regeneration and Repair
• Metabolic response to Trauma
• Disturbance of Homeostatic mechanism
• Haemorrhage and Shock
• Thrombosis and Embolism
• Disturbance of Fluids and Electrolytes
• Infarction and Gangrene
• Disorders of Growth – Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia
• Carcinogens and Pre-malignant lesions
• Neoplasia

• Bacteria (classification, pathogenesis, normal oral flor
•General Principles
•Normal host defense
•Antigen and Antibodies
•Cell-mediated and Antibody-mediated Immunity
•Hypersensitivity reactions
•Immunodeficiency disorders
•Auto-immune disorders


•General Pharmacology
• Absorption of drugs
• Drugs distribution, plasma protein binding
• Plasma half life and steady state concentration of drugs
• Excretion of drugs
• Mechanism of drug action
• Adverse drug reactions
•Characteristics of Common Drugs Used in Dental Practice
•Insulin and oral Hypoglycemic agents
•Thyroid drugs
•Anaesthetic drugs
•Autacoids, Histamine and Anti-histaminic drugs
•Diuretics and Anti-hypertensive drugs


•Medical Ethics and Professionalism
•Psychosocial aspects of general health care


EMBRYOLOGY & PHYSIOLOGY) (Applied / Clinically Relevant)
•Oro Facial Embryology
Knowledge of the developmental processes involved in
formation of Head and neck, including neural folds, neural crest cells, pharyngeal arches and pouches
•Temporomandibular Joint
•Maxillary Sinus
•The brachial apparatus
•Clinical considerations
•Role of neural crest cells in development of head & neck
•Zygomatic complex

Applied Examples:
• Fractures (especially Lefort Classification)
•Age changes
•Nasomaxillary complex deformity
•Cleft lip / palate
•Salivary Glands

Parotid Region:
•Gross anatomical features of Parotid gland and structures
within it
•Surgical anatomical relations of Parotid gland
•Innervations’ of Parotid gland

Submandibular Region:
•Gross anatomical features of Submandibular gland & duct
•Surgical anatomical relations of Submandibular gland
•Innervation and blood supply of Submandibular gland

Sublingual Gland:
•Gross anatomical features of Sublingual gland and duct
•Surgical anatomical relations of Sublingual gland
•Innervation and blood supply of Sublingual gland

Minor Salivary Glands:
•Structure and functions

•Chemical composition, formation and functions of saliva
Applied Examples:
•Facial Nerve injury during surgery
•Parotid Abscess
•Blockage of parotid duct
•Excision of submandibular gland due to tumor or stone, blockage of submandibular duct
•Excision of sublingual gland due to tumor or stone, blockage of submandibular duct
• Effect of xerostomia on dental prosthesis and its management
•Factors leading to Xerostomia
•Role of saliva in formation of caries and oral diseases
•Temporomandibular Joint:
•Type of joint
•Development of TMJ
•Bony boundaries and contents of Temporal and Infra-temporal fossa
•Gross anatomical features of Muscles of Mastication, innervation and blood supply
•Mandibular nerve – course, branches and areas supplied
•Maxillary artery – course, branches and areas supplied
•Gross anatomical features of TMJ with knowledge of mechanism of movement
Applied Examples:
• Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS)
•TMJ dislocations
•Arthritis of TMJ
•Signs and symptoms of Intra-capsular and Extra-capsular TMDs
•Effects of occlusal appliance therapy for management of TMDs
• TMJ Ankylosis

Lymphoid Tissues:




Lymph node structure

Lymphatic drainage
Applied Examples:

Regional lymph nodes involvement in local malignant
tumors and Infection/ Inflammation

Oral Cavity:

Gross anatomical features

Nerve and blood supply of oral cavity, lips and cheeks

Contents of pterygopalatine fossa

Gross anatomical features of external nose

Nasal cavity, Para-nasal air sinuses
Oral Mucosa:




Regional variations


Oral epithelium; mucogingival junction;

Structural variations
Applied Examples:

Age changes

Clinical considerations

Cleft lip and cleft Palate

Carcinoma of lip

Large labial frenum, gingiva

Short/Large lingual frenum

Gingivitis, gingival recession

Dental caries, pulpitis, tooth abscess, extractions,
periodontal disease

Tongue diseases

Gag reflex, paralysis of genioglossus, injury to
hypoglossal nerve, sub-lingual absorption of drugs,
lingual carcinoma

Limiting structures for complete denture, stress bearing
areas, gag reflex managemen

Cranial Nerves
• Anatomical course of III, V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII
Applied Examples:

Neurological symptoms of pathological involvement of

Tooth Development, Structure and Functions

Initiation of tooth development

Stages of tooth development

Hard tissue formation and destruction

Crown determination

Root formation
Applied Examples:

Developmental anomalies



Applied Examples:

Developmental anomalies and its relevance

Clinical consideration





Clinical consideration

Innervation of dentine

Applied Examples:

Developmental anomalies

Dentine diseases

Age changes




Applied Examples:


Response of pulp to stimuli

Age changes in pulp

Clinical consideration




Applied Examples:

Cement response to stimuli

Cementum remodeling

Clinical consideration

Periodontium (Alveolar Bone, Cementum, Periodontal
ligament, Gingiva)



Remodeling and resorption


Response to normal physiologic functions
Applied Examples:

Periodontal diseases

PDL normal physiological functions

PDL function in orthodontic tooth movement

Role of PDL in stability and relapse

Other clinical considerations

Tooth Eruption




Eruption and shedding of primary dentition

Effects of abnormal eruption on occlusio
Applied Examples:

Systemic diseases affecting eruptio

Failure of Eruption; Primary/Secondary

Clinical considerations

Tooth Morphology


Tooth numbering systems


Differences between primary and permanent teeth

Functions of primary dentition

Detailed description of each tooth, both primary and
permanent teeth

Contact areas, Embrasures and Inter proximal spaces

Physiological form and function

Cervical ridges
Applied Examples:

Development, characteristics and clinical considerations
of occlusion

Age changes of Dental Tissues

Principals of tooth preparation for fixed prosthesi

Effects of tooth anomalies on occlusio


Articulation of Occlusion

Development of Occlusion
Features of:

Normal Occlusion


Occlusion in primary dentition

Functional Occlusion
B. ORAL PATHOLOGY(Applied / Clinically Relevant)

Wound Healing

General principles

Healing in oral soft tissues

Repair of enamel, dentine, pulp, periodontium
Applied Example:

The concepts of wound healing and tissue repair in the
context of oral injury and inflammation with practical
implications for the management of oral disease

Disorders of Development of Teeth and related Tissues

Abnormalities in number of teeth

Disorders of eruption

Defects of structure of teeth

Developmental defects of oral soft and hard tissues
Clinical Relevance Example:

Application of knowledge of developmental disorders of
teeth for clinical management and appropriate referral.

Dental Caries



Role of saliva and diet

Types of caries

Histopathology of enamel, dentin, root caries and zones

Theories of caries
Clinical Relevance Examples:

Etiological factors for caries

Correct diagnosis and classification of dental caries for
appropriate management.

Diseases of Pulp and Periodontal Tissue


Pathology and histological features

Clinical and radiological finding

Prognosis and role of dentist in prevention of diseases

Major Bacterial, Viral and Fungal Infections of The Mouth,
Jaws and Perioral Tissues


Pathogenesis and histopathological features

Clinical presentations


Oro-Facial Pathology

Cysts of The Jaws



Pathogenesis of cyst formation

Clinical and radiological presentation

Histological features

Differential diagnosi



Basic treatment Options

Pathology of Odontogenic and Non-Odontogenic tumors of
The Jaw


Pathogenesis of tumors formation

Clinical and radiological presentation

Histological features

Differential diagnosi

Identification of risk factors for various tumor



Basic treatment options

Non-neoplastic Bone Diseases

Patho physiology of genetic, metabolic and
non-neoplastic bone disease

Disorders of Temporomandibular Joint and Peri-articular




Clinical finding
•Differential diagnosis
•Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Diseases of Salivary Glands
•Clinical and histological features
•Special investigations
•Basic treatment options
•Infective and Non-Infective Diseases of Oral Mucosa
•Clinical features
•Tongue Disorders
•Clinical features
•Basic treatment options
•Benign Mucosal Swelling & Chronic Mucosal White Lesions
•Clinical and histological features
•Differential diagnosi
•Oral Premalignant Conditions
•Predisposing factors
•Clinical and histological features
•Identification of potentially malignant disorder
•Risk factors
•Oral Cancer
•Clinical features
•NM Classificatio
•Clinical relevance;
•Diagnosis of oral cancer
•Identification of risk factor
•Prognostic indicators for oral cancer
•Mucocutaneous and Autoimmune Disorders of Oral Cavity
•Basic principles of management and prognosis
•Oral Pigmentations and Related Disorders
•Differential Diagnosis
•Etiological factors

C. SCIENCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS (Applied / Clinically Relevant)
•General Properties of Dental Materials
•Impression Materials
•Setting reactions
•Advantages, disadvantages and applications

Applied clinical Examples:
•Selection of impression material for dental prosthesis/ appliances
•Xerostomia patient, Combination syndrome, mucostatic and mucocompressive impression procedures
•Clinical handling of impression materials. (Mixing time, setting time and loading in impression tray)
•Model/Cast/Die/Refractory Die Materials
•Gypsum products and alternate materials with their
advantages and disadvantages.
•Clinical handling of gypsum products in terms of mixing
time and strength
•Selection of material for fabrication of denture bases
•Investment Materials
•Investment material selection during the fabrication of
•Metals and Alloy
•Structure and properties
•Wrought alloys (stainless steel)
•Clinical uses of metals used in orthodontics
•Material selection of metals for direct retainers in removable partial denture.
•Dental Polymers
•Types of reaction
•Requirements as denture base / Lining
•Artificial teeth and Restorative material
•Advantages and disadvantages
•Dental Ceramic
•Porcelain and alternate materials
•Use of ceramic brackets
•Advantages and disadvantages
•Dental Cements
•Composition/setting and role of ingredients
•Advantages and disadvantages
•Luting/cementing material for PFM and all ceramic crown
and bridges
•Direct Restorative Materials (Gold, Amalgam, Composite,
and Dental Cement
•Composition/setting and role of ingredients
•Advantages and disadvantages
•Preventive dental material
•Polishing and abrasive material
•Endodontic materials
•Dental Implants and periodontal material


•Philosophy of Public Health
•Characteristics of dental public health measures
•Comparison of clinical dentistry and Dental Public health
•Evidence based dental public health practice
•Oral Epidemiology
•WHO global oral health goals
•Epidemiology, etiology and prevention (EEP) of dental
•Periodontal disease
•Oral cancer
•Properties of an ideal index
•Purpose and uses of an index
•Selection of an index
•Plaque index
•Silness and Loe index
•Oral hygiene index
•Oral hygiene index simplifie
•Gingival index
•Periodontal Disease index
•Russell’s index
•Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN)
•Community Periodontal Index (CPI)
•Dental caries indices
•Index of Orthodontics Treatment Needs (IOTN)
•Oral Health Education and Promotion
•Introduction to oral health education and promotion
•Scope and approaches to oral health education
•Contents and aids of oral health education
•Differences between health education and propagand
•Theories of behavior change and learning
•Specific health promotion strategie
•Models of health education and promotion
•Planning a dental community health project
•Introduction to logic framework
•Needs assessment and determining priorities
•Developing program goals and objectives
•Identifying resources and constraints
•Developing implementation strategy
•Monitoring and evaluation
•School based dental programs
•Current Techniques of Preventive Dental Care:
•Overview of preventive dental care
•Plaque control
•Fluorides in dentistry
•Caries activity tests
•Caries vaccine
•Pits and fissures sealant
•Atraumatic restorative technique and minimal invasive
•Preventive and interceptive orthodontics
•Prevention of periodontal disease
•Prevention of oral cancer
•Prevention of malocclusion


• Antiseptics
• Disinfectants
• Phenol derivatives
• Oxidizing agents
• Halogens
• Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
• Acids
• Dyes
• Furan derivatives
• Alcohols
• Aldehydes

Anti Microbials
• Antibiotics
• Anti Virals
• Anti Fungals
• Local Acting Drugs
• Astringents
• Obtundents
• Mummifying agents
• Styptics (local haemostatic agents)
• Disclosing agents
• Mouth Washes
• Surface Acting Agents
• Anti-plaque drugs
• Anti-calculus drugs
• Abrasives
• Detergents
• Bleaching agents
• Dentifrices
•Drugs Used in RCT


November 18, 2022

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